砖石棋牌

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                >砖石棋牌 - 雨林地域特色

                海南明星物种
                2019-11-01 09:01:16  来源: 海南热带雨林国家公园
                  海南长臂猿

                       HAINANZHANGBEIYUANSHUBURUGANG,LINGZHANGMU,ZHANGBEIYUANKE,ZHANGBEIYUANSHU,MINJIANCHENGWEIWUYUAN,SHIHAINANTEYOUDELINGZHANGLEIDONGWU,WEIGUOJIAYIJIBAOHUDONGWU。TOUSHANGZHANGYOUYIDING“HEIMAO”,SHIHAINANDAOZHENZHENGDEYUANZHU“JUMIN”,SHIHAINANREDAIYULINSHENGTAIXITONGWANZHENGXINGHEYUANZHENXINGDEZHISHIWUZHONG,MUQIANZHIFENBUZAIHAINANREDAIYULINGUOJIAGONGYUANBAWANGLINGPIANQU。ZAI2002NIANDI19JIE“GUOJILINGZHANGLEIDAHUI”SHANG,QUEDINGHAINANZHANGBEIYUANWEILIESHIJIEJIDUBINWEILINGZHANGLEIDI1WEI。

                  形态特征:外形似猴,但没有尾巴。寿命40岁左右,成年体重10公斤左右,一般以5-10只的家庭群为活动单位,家族式生活。8岁左右性成熟,妊娠期7-8个月,每两年左右繁殖一次,一般每胎产1仔。海南长臂猿刚出生时毛发是金黄色的,6个月左右毛色开始变黑,性成熟时毛色才渐分雌雄。成年的雌猿雄猿毛色相差很大,雄性通体黑色,雌性全身金黄。

                海南长臂猿  海南热带雨林国家公园管理局供图

                  生活习性:海南长臂猿的声学结构与其它猿类不同,每天清晨猿群开始第一次鸣叫,声音高亢洪亮,它们以此来标志领地,监测人员就是通过此习性开展长臂猿种群数量的调查。每个猿群的活动范围大多在2平方公里左右。海南长臂猿以野荔枝、大果榕、岭南山竹子、乌墨、肖蒲桃、红椎、秋枫等130多种植物的果实和嫩叶为主食,最爱肉厚多汁的果实,偶尔也会觅食鸟蛋。海南长臂猿为树栖动物,活动与觅食均在树冠层中。

                  保护成效:为了保护海南长臂猿,1980年广东省人民政府批准成立霸王岭省级保护区,当时仅存有2群7-9只。1988年,经国务院批准晋升为国家级自然保护区。通过严格的保护和生境修复,海南长臂猿种群数量稳步增长,现已达到4群29只。
                 

                       海南坡鹿

                       海南坡鹿属哺乳纲,偶蹄目,鹿亚科,鹿属。国家一级保护动物,海南特有亚种,是中国17种鹿类动物中最珍贵的一种,被誉为“稀世之珍”。

                  海南坡鹿  海南热带雨林国家公园管理局供图

                  外形特征

                砖石棋牌  HAINANPOLUWAIXINGSIMEIHUALU,TIMAOHONGZONGSE;XIONGLUJUJIAO,SHENSHANGMEIYOUMINGXIANDE“MEIHUA”,DANJIBEISHANGYITIAOHEDAIDELIANGBIAN,ZHENGQIDIDIANZHUIZHELIANGXINGBANDIAN。POLUZONGSHENFEIYUEDESHUNJIAN,YIBANTIZHANGWEI160LIMIZUOYOU,JIANGAO104-110LIMI,TIZHONG70-130QIANKE。TIMAOYIBANWEICHIHESEDAOHUANGHESE,BEIBUYANSEJIAOSHEN,BEIZHONGYANGYOUJINGBUZHIWEIBADEJIBUYOUYITIAOZONGXINGDEHEIHESEJIDAIWEN,DAIWENLIANGCEDIANZHUIZHEBAISEHUAXINGBANDIAN,MEIGEBANDIANRUTONGQIANBANDAXIAO,JIANJUWEI3LIMIZUOYOU,CIWAIZAITUNBUYEYOUSHAOXUBAISEBANDIAN。XIONGLUDEMAOSEBICILUDESHEN,TEBIESHIZAIFAQINGJIAOPEIJIJIE,XIANDEGENGWEINONGYAN。DAOLEQIUMODONGCHU,QUANSHENBIANDOUHUANCHENGZHANGERNONGMIDEDONGMAO,BEIZHONGXIANHEIHESE,BEIJILIANGCEGEYOUYILIEBAISEBANDIAN,BAISEDEBANDIANYEDOUTUNQU,JIHUWANQUANXIAOSHI,YIZHIDAOYINIANCHUNTIAN,ZHEIXIEBANDIANCAIYOUZHUJIANXIANXIAN。TICEJISIZHIWAICEDETISEJIAODAN,FUBUHESIZHINEICEWEIHUIBAISE。YANMIANBUJIERDUODEBEIMIANWEIHUANGHESE,ERYUANDAIYOUHEISE,ERNEIWEIBAISE。WEIBADEBEIMIANWEILIZONGSE,FUMIANWEIBAISEHUODANHESE 。

                  CHENGNIANLUDONGMAOBANDIANBUMINGXIANTIXINGXIAZHANG,JINGBUHESIZHIYEJIAOWEIXIZHANG,BEILIEBUMINGXIAN,ZHUTIXIAZHAIERJIAN,CETIXIAO。CILUDETOUSHANGMEIYOUJIAO,XIONGLUTOUSHANGJIAODEXINGZHUANGHENTESHU,YOUYIGEJIAODADEMEICHA,XIANGQIANZHANGCHU,RANHOUSHAOWEIXIANGSHANGWANQU,ERZHUGANZEXIANXIANGHOU,RANHOUZAIWANQUXIANGSHANG,BINGXIANGQIANSHENZHAN。ZHUGANXIAMIANBUFENCHA,KANLAIHAOXIANGMEIYOUCICHA、SANCHA,QISHISHIFENCHADEWEIZHIJIAOGAO,DOUZHANGDAOLEZHUGANDESHANGDUAN。ZHUGANYUMEICHAJIELIANQILAI,XINGCHENGYIGEDAJIAODUDEHUXING,JIHUCHENGWANGONGZHUANG,SHANGDUANSHENGYOU3-6GEZHANGDUANBUYI、YOUJIANYOUXIDEXIAOJIAN,ZHEIZHONGJIAOXINGXIANRANYUMEIHUALUHEQITALULEIBUTONG。JIAODEZHANGDUYUE100LIMIYISHANG,CU12-13LIMI,JIAOJIANXIANGJU78LIMIYISHANG,MEICHAYEHENZHANG,KEDA45LIMI。

                  栖息环境

                砖石棋牌  POLUZHUYAOQIJUYUHAIBA200mYIXIADEQIULINGPODIHUOPINGDI,ZAIHAINANFANGYANZHONG“PO”JIUSHI“PINGDI”DEYISI,GUZHEIZHONGLUCAIYOU“POLU”ZHIMING。

                  生活习性

                  活动

                  HAINANPOLUSHICHUNXIAJIAOPEIQIUDONGCHANZI,ZHEIHEQITAXUDUOLUZHONGQIUDONGJIAOPEI、CHUNXIACHANZIDEXIXINGGANGHAOXIANGFAN,ZHEIZHONGBUTONGYUQITALUZHONGDEFANZHIXIXING,SHIZHANGQISHIYINGHAINANDAOREDAIHUANJINGDEJIEGUO。HAINANPOLUFANGYUNENGLICHA,TAMENZHISUOYINENGGOUSHENGCUNXIALAI,ZHUYAOKAOPAODEKUAI,TIAODEYUAN。POLUXINGXIQUNQI,DANZHANGZHEZHANGZHANGDEDAJIAODEXIONGLUQUEDADUODANDUXINGDONG。TONGCHANGKEYIKANJIANCHENGSHUANGCHENGDUIHUO3-5ZHIZAIYIQIZUCHENGQUNTI,JISANYUXIAOXIPANGHUOGOUGUNEIDECAOPOHESHIRUNDETIANDIZHONG,YIJIHUOSHAOJIDIDENG,QIZHONGZHUYAOWEICILUHEYOUZI。ZAIFAQINGPEIOUQIJIAN,JIQUNXIANXIANGGENGWEIMINGXIAN,ZUIDUOSHIYUEYOU12ZHIZUOYOU。MISHIHUODONGDUOZAIZAOCHENHEBANGWAN,YOUQIZAIDAYUGUOHOUGENGSHIHUODONGPINFAN。POLUJIAONAIHANHENAIRE,SUIRANXIHUANZAIYOUSHUIDECAODIFUJINMISHI,DANSHANGWEIFAXIANYOUJINXINGXIYUHUONIYUDEXIANXIANG。JUSHUOGUOQUPOLUSHULIANGHENDUODESHIHOU,YECHANGZAIBAIZHOUMISHI,SHENZHIJIEJINHUOHUNRUFANGMUDEJIACHUQUNZHONG,HOULAIYOUYURENMENHUODONGDEYINGXIANG,CAIBEIPOYUZAOCHENHEYEWANHUODONG。

                  食性

                  POLUDEZHUYAOSHIWUSHIQINGCAOHENENSHUZHIYEDENG,ZHONGLEIYOUZHUJIECAO、DINGGUICAO、JIZHAN、QUESHENDENG,YECHIFANCIYE、NENDAOMIAO、ZHEMIAODENGZUOWU,YOUQIXIHUANCHISHUIBIANHUOZHAOZEDILISHENGZHANGDESHUICAO。CIWAI,TAHAIJINGCHANGTIANSHIYANJIANTU,YIBUCHONGSHENTISUOXUDEKUANGWUZHIHEYANFENDENG。

                  觅食

                砖石棋牌  POLUDESHIJUEHETINGJUEDOUFEICHANGRUILI,BENPAOGENGSHISHIFENXUNSU,TEBIESHANYUTIAOYUE。ZAIMISHIDESHIHOUJINGJUEXINGYEHENGAO,MEICHILIANGSANKOUBIANTAIQITOULAISICHUZHANGWANG,DITINGYUANYESHANGDEDONGJING,CONGCONGCHISHIWANBIHOU,JIXINGDUNZANG。YIDANFAXIANDIHAI,LIJIJICHIKUANGBENERQU,SUIYOUSHUMIGAODEQIAOMU、GUANCONGHUOSHUMIKUANDEHEGOU,JIENENGYIYUEERGUO,YINCIHAIYOUXUDUOGUANYUPOLUHUI“FEI”DECHUANSHUO。YINWEIZAIPOLUDECHANDIYEDADUOFENBUZHESHUILU,SUOYIHAILIUCHUANZHESHUILUXIHUANYAOSHIPOLUDERONGJIAODESHUOFA,YINERZHEILIANGZHONGLUCONGBUHUNJU。SHISHISHANG,SHUILUDEQIXIDIZHUYAOSHIHAIBAJIAOGAODESHANLUDIDAI,ERPOLUDEHUODONGQUYUYOUSUOBUTONG。

                  分布范围

                砖石棋牌  ZHUYAOFENBUZAIBAISHALIMIAOZUZIZHIXIANDEBANGXIZHENYUDONGFANGSHIDEDATIANZHENYIDAI。

                  繁殖方式

                  坡鹿是一夫多妻制。雌性从2岁开始持续繁殖,直到10岁。坡鹿的发情期为每年的冬季和初春,繁殖期为每年的2-5月,妊娠期为225-342天,每年一胎,每胎1-2只小坡鹿。小坡鹿在出生4-6个月后断奶,2岁性成熟。幼鹿主要由雌鹿哺育,雄鹿虽然在群体中生活,但很少参与。
                 

                        海南坡垒

                       坡垒隶属龙脑香科(Dipterocarpaceae)坡垒属 (Hopea),海南热带雨林指示性植物。

                  保护级别

                  GUOJIAYIJIZHONGDIANBAOHUYESHENGZHIWU,SHIJIEZIRANBAOHULIANMENG(IUCN)HONGSEMINGLULIEWEIBINWEI(EN),《ZHONGGUOZHIWUHONGPISHU》DINGWEIBINWEI(EN)。

                  分布与生境

                砖石棋牌  FENBUYUZHONGGUOHAINAN(SANYA、LEDONG、CHANGJIANG、BAISHA、WUZHISHAN、WANNING、LINGSHUI、QIONGZHONG、BAOTING、QIONGHAI、DONGFANGDENGSHANQU)、GUANGDONG(HEPU)、YUNNAN、GUANGXI(NANNING、QINZHOU)HEFUJIAN(FUZHOU)DENGDI,NANYAREDAIDIQUYOUYINZHONG。

                  坡垒生于海拔700米左右的密林中。适应炎热、静风、湿润以至潮湿的生境,常与海南木莲、红花天料木、大果榕、鸭脚木等混生。

                  坡垒  海南热带雨林国家公园管理局供图

                  形态特征

                  乔木,高10~20米。叶革质,椭圆形或长圆状椭圆形,长7~12厘米,宽4~6.5厘米;顶端短渐尖,基部稍圆形,干时两面黄褐色,被微小粉状的鳞片;侧脉7~9对,下面凸起,小脉平行,不明显;叶柄长1.5~2厘米,有皱纹。圆锥花序顶生和生于上部叶腋内,长3.5~7厘米,被星状小柔毛;花小,偏生于花序的分枝的一侧,密被灰色短柔毛;花梗粗厚。极短,萼裂片革质,椭圆状卵形,长约2.5毫米,凹陷,顶端圆形,外面密被灰色短柔毛;长成的花未见,雄蕊15枚,排成二轮,外轮的花丝下部宽阔、薄,顶部骤然收狭,内轮的花丝线形,均无毛,花药卵状椭圆形,药隔顶部的附属体丝状,长约1毫米;子房近圆柱形,无毛,花柱短。果卵形,长约1.5厘米,顶端短凸尖,有胶粘质,为扩大的宿萼所包围,其中2片萼裂片扩大成翅,倒披针形,长约7厘米,有纵脉7~9条。花期7~9月,果期11~12月。
                 

                  青梅

                       青梅  海南热带雨林国家公园管理局供图

                砖石棋牌       QINGMEILISHULONGNAOXIANGKE(Dipterocarpaceae)QINGMEISHU (Vatica),HAINANREDAIYULINZHISHIXINGZHIWU,YOUMINGQINGPI。

                  保护级别

                  GUOJIAERJIZHONGDIANBAOHUYESHENGZHIWU,SHIJIEZIRANBAOHULIANMENG(IUCN)HONGSEMINGLULIEWEIBINWEI(EN),《ZHONGGUOZHIWUHONGPISHU》DINGWEIBINWEI(EN)。

                  分布与生境

                  FENBUYUZHONGGUOHAINANCHUHAIKOU、LINGAO、CHENGMAIDENGDIWAIQITADIFANG;YINDUNIXIYA、MALAIXIYA、FEILVBIN、TAIGUO、YUENANYEYOUFENBU。SHENGYUZHONGHAIBALINZHONG。

                  

                       青梅  海南热带雨林国家公园管理局供图

                       形态特征

                砖石棋牌  QIAOMU,GAO7~25MI,XIAOZHI、YEBINGHEHUAXUJUNMIBEIXINGZHUANGXIAORONGMAO。YEGEZHI,ZHANGYUANXINGZHIZHANGYUANZHUANGPIZHENXING,ZHANG5~13LIMI,KUAN2~5LIMI,DINGDUANDUANJIANJIANHUOJIJIAN,JIBUXIEXING,GANSHILIANGMIANJUNCHENGHUANGLVSE,WUMAO,WANGMAILIANGMIANTUQI;YEBINGZHANG7~15HAOMI。YUANZHUIHUAXUSHENGYUSHANGBUYEYENEI,ZHANG4~8LIMI,MIBEIXINGDUANRONGMAO;HUAGENGDUAN,ZHANGYUE2HAOMI;ELIEPIANXIANZHUANGZHANGYUANXING,HUASHIZHANGYUE3HAOMI,DUNTOU,LIANGMIANJUNMIBEIXINGZHUANGWEIROUMAO;HUABANBAISE,XIANZHUANGCHIXING,ZHANG8~11HAOMI,WAIMIANMIBEIXINGZHUANGWEIROUMAO,NEIMIANWUMAO;XIONGRUI15MEI;ZIFANGQIUXING,MIBEIXINGZHUANGWEIROUMAO,HUAZHUDUAN,ZHUTOUTOUZHUANG。GUOQIUXING,ZHIJINGYUE6HAOMI,XIACHENGTUOYIZENGDADESUE,ELIEPIANCHIXING,BUDENGDA,QIZHONG2PIANZUIDA,ZHANG3~4LIMI,KUAN11~16HAOMI,DINGDUANYUANXING,YOUZONGMAI5TIAO。HUAQI5~7YUE。

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